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Engineering, Oil and Gas

Fundamentals of Process & Mechanical Technology




Introduction:

Process engineering is at the heart of much of the chemical, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries. It requires familiarity not only with chemical engineering principles, but also with many of the other engineering disciplines including electrical and instrumentation, but especially mechanical.

The process engineer is interested in the transportation and transformation of solids, liquids, and gases. Of specific importance are separation processes including distillation, heat transfer, hydraulics and fluid flow, reaction engineering, but also process control and economics.

The mechanical engineer is interested in safe containment and movement of solids, liquids, and gases, often at high temperature and pressure. Of specific importance are failure modes such as fracture, fatigue and creep, corrosion and corrosion minimization, material properties, design standards, static & rotating equipment design, inspection, and repair as well as an understanding of maintenance strategies and condition monitoring. Sound mechanical engineering principles, together with other engineering techniques including inspection, monitoring, and condition evaluation, enable the mechanical engineer to design and maintain the equipment required by the process engineers

Targeted Groups:

  • Petroleum Engineers
  • Maintenance & Production Engineers
  • Process Engineers
  • R&D Chemists, Plant Chemists
  • Economists & Business Managers

Course Objectives:

At the end of this course the participants will be able to:

  • Apply practical understanding of central issues in process & mechanical engineering in oil, gas, petrochemical, chemical, and allied facilities
  • Understand fundamental principles used in processes & facilities & apply a practical understanding of essential process units & classes of units involved in separations, heat exchange & reactions
  • Apply practical understanding to static & rotating mechanical equipment & related condition mentoring & inspection techniques
  • Understand mechanical testing methods, Failure Mechanisms & Fitness for Service, NDT & principles of corrosion & corrosion protection
  • Perform relevant calculations & analyses to assist in the operation, sizing, & troubleshooting of chemical processes & mechanical equipment

Targeted Competencies:

  • A practical introduction to the fundamentals of process engineering
  • A practical introduction to the fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering, Equipment and Materials
  • Key areas applicable to major process industries especially oil, gas & petrochemical
  • Process and Mechanical Engineering influence on Safety and Risk, Failure Modes and Maintenance
  • The links between the two engineering disciplines
  • Mechanical design of pressure equipment and piping systems in compliance with applicable codes, standards, and regulations
  • Engineering materials properties and selection criteria for specific applications
  • Identification and assessment of active degradation mechanisms and the failures they may cause
  • An understanding of the various static and rotating equipment used in the petrochemical environment
  • Application of maintenance strategies and philosophies
  • Condition monitoring, inspections and assessments

Course Content:

Unit 1: Introduction and Fundamentals of Process Engineering:

  • Process engineering basics
  • Mass and energy balances
  • Batch and continuous processes
  • Reactor types
  • Process equipment and flow diagrams
  • P&IDs
  • Flammability
  • Electrical area classification
  • Risk Management and Hazard Studies
  • Hydraulics and Fluid flow
  • Pressure and head
  • Bernoulli's theorem and its field applications
  • Flow of liquids
  • Reynolds number and pressure drop in pipes
  • Two-phase and multi-phase flow
  • Enthalpy and thermodynamics
  • Principle of process relief devices and process design of relief systems
  • Principles of pressure vessel and piping design
  • Pumps
  • Compressors
  • Mixers
  • Mechanical Equipment - Types and application guidelines

Unit 2: Heat Transfer and Reaction Engineering:

  • Heat Transfer
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Conduction and convection
  • Insulation
  • Heat transfer coefficients and calculation
  • Heat exchangers, type and sizing
  • Steam reboilers
  • Condensers and sub-cooling
  • Introduction to energy recovery
  • Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
  • Chemical reactions
  • Reaction kinetics
  • Introduction catalysis
  • Green Chemistry and Engineering
  • Reactor Design and Operation

Unit 3: Distillation Processes and Equipment:

  • Distillation basics
  • Phase behavior and vapor/liquid equilibria
  • Gas/Liquid separation
  • Distillation equipment - Columns and vessels
  • Columns and vessels - Sizing and selection guidelines
  • Column and vessel internals - Types and selection guidelines
  • Troubleshooting of process equipment
  • Reactor Design and Operation

Unit 4: Separation Processes and Equipment:

  • Overview of Other Separation Processes
  • Absorption and adsorption
  • Amine sweetening
  • Solid Liquid separation
  • Effluent treatment [in refinery and petrochemical] industries

Unit 5: Process Control and Economics:

  • Process Control Basics
  • Classification of control systems
  • Measured variables
  • Simple feedback control
  • Process Economics
  • Preliminary economic analysis
  • Fixed and variable costs, break-even analysis
  • Calculating raw materials usage
  • Estimating the cost of process equipment and plants

Unit 6: Introduction & Fundamentals:

  • Engineering Material Properties
  • Stress and Strain
  • Fracture failure, Modes, Stress concentration, Fracture toughness
  • Fatigue failure, testing and mechanism
  • Temperature Considerations and Creep Failure
  • Identification of Damage Mechanisms
  • Mechanical Design
  • ASME & API
  • Codes & Standards
  • Design for static strength

Unit 7: Materials Selection and Inspection:

  • Materials Selection
  • Materials of Construction
  • Carbon Steels
  • Alloy Steels
  • Stainless Steels
  • Nickel Based and Titanium Alloys
  • Inspection techniques
  • Visual
  • Penetrant
  • Magnetic Flux
  • Eddy Current Inspections
  • X-Ray & Gamma-ray
  • Ultrasonics – TOFD & Pulse-Echo

Unit 8: Valves, Piping & Fitness for Service:

  • Valves
  • Valve Types
  • Valve Characteristics
  • Valve Applications
  • Valve Selection
  • Valve Actuators
  • Piping & Pipelines
  • ASME B31
  • Pipe Types, construction and Schedules
  • Steel Pipes
  • Welded Types and Sections
  • Flanges and Gaskets
  • Plastic Pipes, Composite Pipes
  • Pipe Coatings and Linings
  • Pipe Supports and insulation blocks
  • Stress relief in Piping Design
  • Pigging
  • Water hammer
  • Overview of API 570 - Inspection & repair of Pipelines & Piping
  • API 579 overview
  • Fitness for Service

Unit 9: Corrosion:

  • Corrosion Fundamentals
  • Types of Corrosion
  • Corrosion Inspection and Monitoring
  • Corrosion Minimization
  • Coatings
  • Inhibitors
  • Cathodic Protection

Unit 10: Compressors:

  • Types of Compressors
  • Reciprocating, Centrifugal and Screw
  • Blading and Staging
  • Performance Curves
  • Compressed Air Usage and instruments
  • Glands and Mechanical Seals

Unit 11: Mechanical Maintenance:

  • Strategies & Philosophies
  • Maintenance system optimization
  • Maintenance Management Systems
  • Condition Monitoring
  • Vibration Analysis
  • Shaft Alignment